The United States consists of a lot of immigrants. In 1840s and 1850s, many immigrants flooded into the United States. They were from Ireland or German. In the case of Irish, 3 million people starved because of potato famine in 1845. Most of immigrants lived big city and got a job which does not need specialty technique. Some German promoted new business or engaged in agriculture. In 1860s, immigrants from China increased. Most of them lived in California. They built railways or worked a mine. As many as five million Chinese came to the United States. Some problems happened between first immigrants and Chinese because they have different language, religion and culture. However they got along each other, and new immigrants from China had opportunity to get better jobs, life and land.
In 1870s, immigrants came to the United States from England, the Netherlands, Sweden and Norway. The reason they came was seeking jobs. In 1890s, over six million people came to the United States. They were from Italy, Bulgaria, Poland, Greece and Russia. Immigrants who came from Europe by ship made a landing to the port in New York. From 1892 to 1943, Ellis Island was the entrance. Each immigrant underwent a medical examination and turned in an identification card there. Sometimes over five thousand people passed in a day.
When the number of immigrants increased rapidly, American people were worried that immigrants rob jobs from American or immigrants bring poverty and crime. Then government established some new law which controls immigration into the United States and restricted immigration. To be concrete, they set up a law which refuses immigrants who cannot read and write English to enter into America in 1917, and in 1924, a law which limits the number of immigrants was in force.
The United States established and fixed the system for immigrants in a history. Because of a lot of immigrants, America becomes a biggest country in the world, I think. Japan should start to receive immigrants and set up systems. It may be difficult to live together with other culture or value, but forces of immigrants is necessary to become grater country.
“L’odyssée des émigrants” Nancy Green 1997
by Ayako Ueda