The environment and globalization

Before the Air Pollution Control Act of 1955, ...

(Photo credit: Wikipedia)

by Bun Kin

As globalization has gotten more and more attention, people have started to achieve their huge-scale aim no matter how big the impact toward environment would be. In developed countries, they actually try to decrease and control the amount of pollution brought by globalization of market economy, however, developing countries especially don’t have the financial power to improve the pollution issue usually. They remarkably have increased their exports to other countries and have started natural extinctions, for example tropical forest or polluted atmosphere air and ocean.

The World Trade Organization has also encouraged increasing the exportation of primary products such as coffee or wood as the goal “the spreading of business will advance development”. As the result of this, there is no limit to establish these kind of primary products, which finally became the reason of the environmental damage becoming bigger and bigger. Plus as the value of these products get lower and lower, the negative impact on the environment occurred to try to reduce financial losses, and then this increases the gap between the rich and the poor.

Globalization not only brings environmental pollution, but the globalization of damage to the environment is occurring by itself, for example with global warming, which is one of the biggest environment issues among all over the world. Because developed countries have never stopped discharging CO2 unlimitedly, the whole earth temperature has being getting higher, which also leads the issue of subsidence in places like Bangladesh and small islands in the Pacific Ocean.

The new political way of thinking, financial capitalism, is a branch of globalization. This approach has established a system to let the mass production get popular, and this is also one reason of environment pollution. Also to spread the market scale to be wider is also a great factor of increasing financial gap in the society.

However, it is obvious that people are paying more attention to this serious issue, and are providing many methods to relieve the damaged earth and its situation. For example, to encourage the incentive for 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) to save the resource as more as people can. This kind of effort would bring a huge merit to human being in my opinion. People have the responsibility to get involved in earth-protecting activities for each of us is a person living on the earth. And the precious thing is to try to change the current conscience personally will also make a big impact to the whole environment situation to good way. But this can be said hard for giant companies and people who still statement the capitalism. This is the very basic problem for environmental issue.

Global Care Chain Reinforcing Gender Roles

English: photo rhacel parrenas

Rhacel Parreñas (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

by Yuri Kasai

I would like to discuss about ‘global care chains’. This concept was first used by Arlie Hochschild and developed by many authors such as Rhacel Parreñas. This concept refers to global processes to exchange care and salary. Care includes child care nursing for the sick and elderly people, and love giver. I will focus on global chains of child care, which we discussed in class.

About child care, women in richer countries cannot raise their children because they are busy from their job and they do not have time to bring up children. Therefore, women in richer countries hire a migrant mother from the poorer country as a nanny. Nannies send remittance to their family to support financially instead of taking care of their children. The role of migrant mothers to care their own children is imposed on their older female sibling or their relative women and most fathers who stay in their home do not help to care children. The distribution of roles attributes gender role in the migrant’s home countries. Philippines are one of the sending countries of nannies and most Philippines’ male families do not help out child rearing. Host countries of foreigner nannies are the US and European countries such as Belgium, France, Germany and Italy (GCIM, 5).

I think the labor exchange of child rearing cannot replace to parental love. Our professor argued that care is not an exchangeable resource like any other products, and hiring nannies lets parents in developed countries to keep two types of illusions: 1) the illusion to have all including work, family, and leisure, and 2) the illusion of maternal love. I agree with this opinion.

Parents’ assumptions let them to spend their time to develop their career or something. The families seek what they want to do, lose strong tie and time to gather around. However, family relations last for many years till parents die in many cases, even though the children do not like their parents.

Family is not collection of blood relations but a tie of human with love. It is better for parents to create good relations with children through rearing them well from babyhood. If not, parents have difficulty that children take to them and children maybe take to only their nanny, considering about the time to spend for children. Their children are not the status of parents but humans who need love. If parents need good relations with their children, parents need to care their children physically instead of hiring nannies for children. To migrant mothers, if they can love children deeply as a nanny, they miss their own children. Parents in developed countries should notice this and think that breeding children need physical care.

In order to reduce the number of children without love from parents, I think we need to make society with smaller gender role. Although migrant nannies give maternal love for children, children need parents’ love to be a good family. In some developed countries, such as the US, Germany or Italy, they seemed to complete better gender-free society. However, children care is depended on migrant mothers and gender role is imposed on immigrants. This tendency does not destroy gender role and gender role in developing countries enlarges to the developed countries. We should make global society without gender role.

Reference

Global Migration Perspective: Global Care Chains, A Critical Introduction. Global Commission on International Migration (GCIM). Sep, 2005. www.gcim.org.