by Sayaka Kuroiwa
I read the article “Arnold Schwarzenegger, Ally McBeal and Arranged Marriages: Globalization on the Ground in India” ( 2003 by Steve Derné). Derné says that “cultural globalization has failed to transform their ideas about family life. Instead, cultural globalization has simply introduced new images that men use to reinforce old days” (p. 18). According to the article, thanks to cultural globalization, in india, many foreign cinemas have been seen by many Indians. These cinemas sometimes reflect independent, strong and free women in developed country. Generally speaking, these foreign cultures on cinemas may affect on the country’s culture. But Indian gender that men have dominance over women has not been changed. Indian men like action movies which has strong men. Why can’t cultural globalization change one’s country gender? And what can change it?
The formation of gender
First of all, it is gender, the cultural and social roles of men and women. It’s not true that we have had one idea of gender from the old days. Gender is constructed by history, culture and society. Then, gender doesn’t make social facts. Conversely, social facts do make one idea of gender. That is to say, for example, the fact that women get one job connects with an idea that the job is only for women and the job is good for women.
Gender by districts
Gender has regional differences because it is constructed by regional culture and history. I will introduce about it.
The textile industry in Japan; the textile industry in Japan has an image it is job for women. In 1900s, a domestic cottage industry was women’s job. Japanese husband calls his wife “kanai 家内”. The textile industry was one of the domestic cottage industry, so the image has remained until now.
The textile industry in Germany; the textile industry in Germany has an image it is job for men. In1800s flourished in Keln. Then Germany men organized “zunft”. And they were proud of their jobs and they had big power. History has made an image like this.
Gender and cultural globalization
I think cultural globalization can’t transform regional gender easily, like it can’t change history and culture easily. Then, what can change regional gender for women’s active participation in society? I think “education” can change it. I believe education and knowledge can make independent women. It would be effective that establishing environment girls can study freely without pressure and dominance by men. I think it is a good way to establish girls’ schools that raise independent women who can do any task without depending on men in the world.