“Men tend to work” “Women tend to do housework” are expected behaviors that are connected to gender. Then why it is said that men tend to work and women tend to do housework ? That will go back till ancient time. First of all, a structure of body differs between male and female biologically. As a result, men engaged in heavy labor and played an active part as a combatant since ancient time. Because women can bear children and can breast-feed, women engaged in domestic works since ancient time.
In present-day Japan, it is mainly concerned with the division of work “a man is work and women are housekeeping, child-rearing, and shopping”. In Japanese rapid economic growth, because family economic got stable fame convert did not need to work.
One reason why sex working role extended is industrialization of Japan. Secondary sector of industry needs blue color workers so it is difficult to engage a woman in rough work. On the other hand, in urban area women became high academic achievement and advanced to a place-of-work gradually. The organization of Homemaking course teacher felt a sense of crisis so for female student homemaking was a compulsory subject.
In 1990s-2000s because having two incomes was increasing gradually gender role has been improved. In recent years the female has advanced to a place-of-work place but a male housekeeping assignment has not advanced. So I think that we should consider not only female gender role but male gender role.
by Shinji Nishiura
I read your article and found that it is interesting topic for me as well. Men are supposed to go to work, and women are supposed to stay home and do housework and educate their child. This is a social norm which has been created since, as you say, ancient times to current days. I know that men are relatively tough than women and that is why men focus on working and laboring. When all men left home and went for working, women were the only one who could have responsibility to protect their house and child. Moreover, about educating, men could never know how hard to bear the baby is. Men try to know, but could never experience a such big task. Therefore, women care of their baby the most than going for work and earn money. Men work and women protect their house. While I think this system is well balanced, I also think we should not stick to this notion. Of course there are many women who are willing to work and do what they want, or they have to because of economical problem. On the other hand, there are of course many men who are willing to commute more fact with their baby. Even this system is worked by social norms, I think Japanese people are gradually trying to escape from this notion. I suppose this system will be changed more as the time goes on. Anyway, this is very interesting topic!
As you mentioned in your post, after Japanese economy stabilized, women has achieved their social status as women with a career. They have to support their family with double income along with husbands. The problem of this is that, in japan still so many women with their career have to work at the same time taking care of their children without t receiving enough support from their husbands or children. I strongly agree with you that Japanese still have a notion that men are to work outside, women to stay home.
Good thing is that I saw the news that a number of men who take childcare leave are gradually increasing. But it is also true that because of the notion, men feel reluctant to take a part of women job at home.
Reading this kind of reminded me of how gender differed in Japan and America. In Japan, we have a strong image of men working and then women doing the housework. But in America, far as I know, depends but men and women might work, and if they have kids, then they both will take care of the housework. However, recently, there are some women who work and the men doing the housework in Japan. Like it is written above, women are getting higher education, which means that some women might have a better job than the men does. In addition, this is might just be only around me, but I think that there are fewer women who can do a proper housework. Instead, the men around me know about housework, so I don’t think that men’s role are not advancing. Therefore, men working and women doing the housework might be ideal, but I believe this ideal is changing little by little as the generations are changing.