by Akiko Takano
From the late 20th century, the movement of the people cross borders becomes popular more and more. The people work, live and make a family at the place they emigrated. Emigrants usually use the connection with the person who moved another country formerly and move the country. In that way, immigrants began to increase and they make community. What in the world is the international migration? We need to know immigrants to understand and respect their value. I’ll introduce the kinds of immigrants and then focus on transnational immigrants and its problem in this essay.
Immigration can be classified three types. The first is the emigrants to find work. They move another country to get stable job with good wages and affluent life. Actually, most of the immigrants are certain rich because they need funds to move and local network. The second is refugees who move to escape persecution. The number is not small so refugee is big flow of people and influence global society. Moreover, the illegality emigrant exists, too. Because they do illegal immigration and an over stay, they don’t have the regular stay qualification. Thus, the people who move from the mother country to the other countries have various cases.
The people who cross the border aren’t always settle down in one place. Some people value a connection with the hometown, and go back and forth in homeland and the emigration place many times. They are called “transnational immigrants”. I explain with example of Australian immigrants from China who I met. I went to Australia and stayed for a month this year. Australia is a multiracial nation with many emigrants. My host family was immigrant from China. Their house was Australian style, but meal was Chinese and spoke Chinese at home. They looked leave the custom of the mother country while adopting Australian culture. In addition, they did telephone and Skype with the family in China frequently and said that we returned to China every year. Therefore “transnational immigrants” keep the connection with the family beyond the border and have both of culture and the customs of emigration place and of the mother country.
The movement from the country to the country becomes easier than before, and “transnational immigrants” increased by the development of the transportation, but there is the problem. “Brain drain” happens. “Brain drain” is person with specialized knowledge and technique emigrates to other country whose work condition is better. It means that the elite are lost in the emigrant sending out country. What regulation makes is important to prevent the relations between acceptance country and the sending out country from turning worse.